At least for one type of derivative, credit risk swaps (CDSs) for which the inherent risk is considered high [by whom?], the higher face value remains relevant. It is this kind of derivative that investment tycoon Warren Buffett referred to in his famous 2002 speech in which he warned against “weapons of financial mass destruction.”  The face value of CDS was $25.5 trillion in early 2012, up from $55 trillion in 2008.  Many derivatives are neutralized. This means that a small amount of capital is required to have a large share of the value in the underlying. In the financial field, a futures contract (familiar futures) is a standard contract between two parties for the purchase or sale of a given asset of quantity and standardized quality at a price agreed today (the futures price) with delivery and payment on a specific date, the date of delivery, and in fact a derivative (i.e. a financial product derived from an underlying value). Contracts are traded on a futures exchange that acts as an intermediary between the buyer and the seller. The party that agrees to purchase the basic democratic asset in the future, the “buyer” of the contract, must be “long” and the party that agrees to sell the asset in the future, the “seller” of the contract, is described as “short.” Speculative trading in derivatives gained notoriety in 1995, when Nick Leeson, a trader at Barings Bank, made mediocre and unauthorized investments in futures contracts. Leeson suffered a $1.3 billion loss due to a lack of judgment, a lack of oversight by the bank`s management and supervisory authorities and unfortunate events such as the Kobe earthquake, which led to the secular institution`s bankruptcy.  A derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on, or derived from, an underlying or group of assets – a repository. The derivative itself is a contract between two or more parties and the derivative deducts its price from the variations of the underlying. In the United States, the combined efforts of the SEC and the CFTC had produced more than 70 proposed and definitive derivatives rules up to February 2012.
 Both, however, had delayed the adoption of a number of derivatives rules because of the burden imposed by other rules, litigation and opposition to the rules, and many core definitions (such as “swap,” “security-based swap” and “security-based swap participant”) had still not been adopted.  SEC President Mary Schapiro said, “Ultimately, it probably makes no sense to harmonize everything [between SEC and CFTC rules], because some of these products are very different and the market structures are certainly very different.”  On February 11, 2015, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued two final rules to establish a framework for reporting and disclosing security-based swap data.  Both rules are not fully compliant with THE CFTC`s requirements.